Bone cancer - OOKINFO
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6/06/2019

Bone cancer

Bone cancer is a type of cancer that attacks bones. This condition can be experienced by children to adults. Bone cancer can attack any bone in the body but generally occurs in the legs, arms, and pelvis.

Bone cancer is a rare condition, only 1% of all cancer patients. Even more, tumors that form on the bones are benign than malignant ones.


Symptoms of Bone Cancer


The following are three main signs and symptoms of bone cancer, namely:

  • Pain. People with bone cancer will feel pain in the area of the affected bone. Initially, the pain only feels occasionally but will become more frequent as cancer grows. The pain will be felt more when moving, and usually worsens at night.
  • Swelling. Swelling and inflammation appear in the area around the bone affected by cancer. If swelling occurs in the bones near the joints, the patient will have difficulty moving the joints.
  • Brittle bones. Bone cancer causes bones to become brittle. If it gets worse, just a minor injury can cause a fracture.

Some other symptoms that can accompany the three main signs above are:

  • Weight loss without cause.
  • Sweating at night.
  • The body gets tired easily.
  • Fever.
  • The sensation of numbness or numbness, if cancer occurs in the spine and suppresses the nerves.
  • Shortness of breath, if bone cancer spreads to the lungs.

Keep in mind, bone pain in adults is sometimes misinterpreted as arthritis. Whereas in children and adolescents, it is sometimes considered a side effect of bone growth. Immediately see a doctor if you or your child feel bone pain that is missing and arising, worsens at night, and does not improve despite taking painkillers.

Causes and Risk Factors for T- cancer cancer


The exact cause of bone cancer is unknown. However, this condition is thought to be triggered by changes or mutations in the gene controlling cell growth. These mutations make cells grow uncontrollably, and form tumors in the bones.

Cancer that forms in the bone can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymph flow.
There are a number of factors that can increase a person's risk of developing bone cancer, namely:

  • Suffers from a genetic disorder called Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • I have had treatment with radiotherapy.
  • Having had an eye cancer called retinoblastoma, when he was a child.
  • Ever suffered from umbilical hernias, when
  • Suffering from Paget's disease, a condition in which bones become weak.
 

Type K is T- screwed again


The following are types of bone cancer:

  • Osteosarcoma. Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer, which develops in bone cells of the arms, legs, and pelvis. Osteosarcoma is more common at the age of 10-30 years and is more common in men than women.
  • Chondrosarcoma. This type of bone cancer develops in cartilage cells in the area of the upper arm, shoulder, rib, pelvis, and thigh. Chondrosarcoma is more common in women over 40 years.
  • Ewing Sarcoma. This type of bone cancer generally develops in the pelvis, thigh bone, and shin bone. Ewing's sarcoma is more common at the age of 10-20 years. Only 10 percent of Ewing's sarcoma cases are experienced by adults aged 20 years and over.
  • Chordoma. This type of bone cancer generally appears at the base of the skull or in the spine and tends to grow slowly. Chordoma most often attacks men aged 30 years and over.
  • Giant cell tumor in the bone. Although most tumors of this type are benign, some of them can be malignant. This type of bone cancer generally attacks the arm bone and leg bones near the knee. These tumors rarely spread to other parts of the body that are distant, but often reappear even though they have been removed.

Diagnosis of cancer is repeated


The doctor can expect the patient to have bone cancer if there are a number of symptoms described earlier. But to be sure, the doctor can do further examinations, such as:


  • X-ray photo examination is done to determine bone damage that occurs due to cancer and the presence or absence of new bone growth. X-ray examination can also show the doctor whether the symptoms experienced by patients are caused by bone cancer or other conditions, such as fractures.
  • C computerized tomography (C T ) scan. A CT scan is an X-ray examination with the help of a computer to produce images of body parts in three-dimensional shapes. CT scans are usually done to see if cancer has spread to other organs.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI). MRI is used to see more clearly the size of cancer, and the extent of its spread in or in the area around the bone.
  • Nuclear examination. If needed, the doctor will combine an X-ray examination by injecting radioactive material into a blood vessel. Radioactive materials will be absorbed more quickly by the bones affected by cancer, and help doctors see the affected area more clearly.
  • Biopsy. A biopsy is taking a sample of cancerous bone tissue to be examined with a microscope. This is the most accurate method of diagnosing bone cancer. Besides being able to determine the type of bone cancer suffered by the patient, a biopsy can also detect the stage and spread of cancer. A biopsy can be done by keyhole surgery or by open surgery.

The above examination is also used to determine the stage or severity of cancer. There are four stages in cases of bone cancer, namely:

  • Stage 1. At this stage, the cancer is still in one area of the bone.
  • Stage 2. At this stage, cancer cells have begun to enlarge.
  • Stage 3. At this stage, cancer has spread to more than one area in the same bone.
  • Stage 4. At this stage, cancer has spread to other organs in the body, such as the lungs, liver, or brain.
 

    Treatment of cancer T re- cancer


    The choice of bone cancer treatment depends on the severity, location, and type of cancer. Handling of bone cancer can be done by surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy.

    Operation


    Surgery aims to remove the part of the bone affected by cancer, and surrounding tissue if needed. Some types of surgery that can be done to overcome bone cancer are:


    • Bone removal surgery. Surgical removal of bone is done if cancer has not spread beyond the bone, and the bone can still be reshaped. In this procedure, the affected part of the bone will be removed, then replaced with artificial bone from metal (prosthesis). The muscles, blood vessels, and nerves around the bone will be left. If the cancerous bone is located near the joint such as on the knee, the orthopedic doctor can also lift the joint and replace it with an artificial joint.
    • Amputation. Amputation is the removal of part or all of the part of the leg that is affected by cancer, then replacing it with artificial limbs. This procedure is done if cancer has spread to other areas around the bone. In amputation, the doctor will remove all parts of the bones, muscles, blood vessels, and nerves around the bone that has been affected by cancer.

    After the surgery is successful, the patient is advised to undergo physiotherapy, to restore the function of the organs in the operated part.


    Chemotherapy


    Chemotherapy is the administration of anticancer drugs through injections into blood vessels. Chemotherapy can be done in several ways, namely:

    • Combined with radiation therapy before patients undergo surgery. The method known as chemoradiation is effective in dealing with Ewing's sarcoma.
    • Given before surgery to shrink the size of cancer, so that it can be removed without having to undergo amputation.
    • Given after surgery to prevent cancer cells from growing back.
    • Given to relieve symptoms (palliative chemotherapy) in patients who cannot be treated in any way.

    The implementation of chemotherapy is divided into several cycles, each of which lasts for several days. There is a gap of several weeks between one cycle and the next so that patients can recover from the effects of chemotherapy. The number of cycles of chemotherapy needed will be different for each patient, depending on the type and severity of cancer suffered.

    Radiotherapy


    Radiotherapy or radiation therapy is carried out by emitting high-radiation rays, such as X-rays. This procedure is usually done before surgery to shrink cancer cells so that the cancer is more easily removed. Radiotherapy is generally carried out 5 times a week, with each session lasting several minutes.
     
    Just like chemotherapy, radiotherapy can also be done to relieve symptoms and slow the progression of cancer in bone cancer patients who cannot be treated in any way. 

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